What disgusts can turn into what fertilizes.
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The biol is part
of a whole self-sustainable home model, that includes the own
generation of energy and food. At National University of Piura, there
is an educational programme for its obtaining and integration with
other activities like the obtaining of compost, management of
greenhouses, growing of worms, among others.
Photo by John Leonardo Flores/FACTORTIERRA.NET
SULLANA, Peru -
While many people continue to see the residual water of the
hydrobiological industry, disgusted and annoyed, quite few assume it as
the raw material for obtaining an organic fertilizer without toxicity,
with a high benefit for the crops where it is applied, plus can
recuperate agriculturally overexploited soils or fertilizing the
ones with possibilities to enlarge the agricultural frontier.
is presented among the people and some authorities because the industry
continues to use the urban shewerage for undoing the called efluents or
residual water gotten after the whole process, so the Chira River
continues to be polluted despite a treatment plant still postponing
while bureaucratic details are adjusted between the Peruvian government
and the municipal administration of Sullana Province.
Until then, one
solution is not pouring the efluents into the shewerage but bringing
them to Gestión y Manejo de Residuos Sólidos (GEMA-RS) plant, located
near Sullana-Piura Highway, that started to operate in 2015-ending after
many bureaucratic locks, transforming the organic residues of the city
into compost, setting up as a goal reducing the contamination of Chira
River 80% around.
experience until now, GEMA-RS has added the production of biol, an
organic fertilizer that uses the efluents from Sullana City-based
hydrobiological industry as its raw material.
It is considered
an efluent all residual water which quality has been negatively
affected by any human commercial and industrial activity, what needs a
new physical-chemical or biological process that purifies as much as
possible when is impossible to re-use in its actual stage. One of those
ways is by resuming it to a anaerobic digestion, or extraction of
nutrients in absence of oxygen, what is precissely the principle
of biol obtaining.
The biol is the
result of dung-&-water fermentation through the chemical
decomposition and transformation of organic residues in an anaerobic
environment. The technique is through biodigesters. Once used in the
soil as fertilizer, it allows a better development of the plants,
increasing their productiveness.
And nytrogen (N)
is the key of everything, the gas forming a great proportion of the
terrestrial atmosphere, one of the life components in our planet
with the carbon (C), the hydrogen (H) and the oxygen (O).
Enriched And Odoroless
obtained from residual water presents a major quantity of
macronutrients -nytrogen (N), phosphorum (P), and potasium (K)-
in its composition than te obtained one from well water.
But, not all the
industrial efluents are rich in nytrogen, phosphorum neither, for the
mycrobial communities to develop the necessary activity that
biologically depures. That is why you need to add both elements for
recovering its action power.
In those cases,
problems can be presented as growth of non-wanted bacteries, excess of
extra-cellular polymers production, mud hydrolisis, major starting-up
time and less production of gases in the anaerobic systems, emisions of
nutrients in the recipient, non-wanted biological growth, major
production of mud.
Also, one of the
disadvantages producing this substance is the detachment of stench due
to the hydrogen sulphide (H2S), that is naturally found in all residual
There are many
ways to fight the stench this gas produces, from those only masking it
to those completely mitigating it, like the use of efficient
microorganisms, EM, a natural procedure that has begun to
extend the last years. In fact, when choosing to use EM
adeqquately, the product outputting from the biodigestor does not
absolutely smell, attract insects neither.
This is precissely the procedure GEMA-RS uses for obtaining biol.
it is poured in a 50-cubic-meter or 13209-gallon pond containing
residual water of hydrobiologicals which a mixed material was
previously applied. Constant aeration is made to this system with a
Due to its great
organic composition, the biol also can be used to enrich the production
of compost, raising the quantitty of nutrients as carbon and nytrogen,
as well as the quantitty and variety of microorganisms in charge of the
composting material's degradation, increasing the metabolical rate of
them, accelerating the speed of compostage process.
Photo by John Leonardo Flores/FACTORTIERRA.NET
BASIC TECHNICAL INFORMATION ON BIOL
- Allows a major
conservation of nytrogen, so helps to structure soils in a natural way.
As a result, it can raise the productiveness of crops installed there.
fertilization capability of the soil is greater than fresh dung or
composted dung, because it guarantees better the conversion of
nytrogen into ammonium (NH4+).
- Being an
improver of the soil's nutrients availability, , it raises its hydric
availability, creating an adequate micro-climate for the plants due to
its content of fitoregulators, what control the physiological
processes, estimulate the formation of new roots, induct the
flowering, have fruitful action.
- Generates major vegetal material.
- The production
can raise in a 30% to 50% range, that adds its totally organic
character, what guarantees harmlessness, only even there is no direct
or indirect influence of other agricultural products.
- Allows to obtain
a compost with excellent properties capable to promote
physiological activities and estimulate the development of the plants,
favoring its rooting, elapsing the leaf growth phase (what will charge
photosynthesis), improving the flowering, and activating the
germinative potence and power of the seeds.
Factors Influencing Into the Biol's Development
of operation is one of the main parameters to consider, because abrupt
variations can provocate a destabilization of
fermentation process. Those variations cause a declination of mycrobial
metabolism due to degradation of enzymes, what agravates the life of
temperature also influences in other physical-chemical parameters of
the anaerobic digestion, like the solubility and the viscosity.
- The solubility
of the generated gases falls down when the temperature raises,
favoring the liquid-gas transference. This could isminish the
concentration of toxic gases, like ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulphide
(H2S), benefitting the growth of anaerobic bacteries.
- The decline of
carbon dioxide (CO2) solubility could provocate an increasing of the
pH, what ccould generate high-concentration ammonium (NH4+) muds,
producing possible inhibitions of ammonia (NH3).
- The solubility
of the most salt raises with the temperature, what eases the access of
organic matter to the bacteries, accelerating the process.
- The viscosity of solids and semisolids falls down when the temperature raises, what implies less need to shake.
pH And Alkalinity
The range of
anaerobic digestion's optimal pH is 6,5 to 7,5. That is why the
process pH must not be out of that range for developing satisfactorily.
The increasing or disminishing of pH can inhibit the fermentation or
Time Of Retention
The time of
retention is the number of days those certain quantitty of residual
scrap or water must keep inside the biodigester, for the bacterial
groups to degrade the organic matter because its metabolical activity.
The time of retention is related to two type of factors: the type of substratum, an its temperature.
- A major
temperature origins a disminishing in times of retention for
fermentation, then consequently the volumes of the reactor needed
for the digestion of a determined volume of substratum will be minor.
- About the type
of substratum, the components with a major proportion of retained
carbon (celulose) used in the process require major times of retention
to be totally degraded.
elements and nutrients conforming the organic matter, the carbon
(C) and the nytrogen (N) are the main sources of the feeding for
methane-forming bacteries (CH4). The carbon is the source of energy
while the nytrogen estimulates the formation of new cells and the
contained in the digestion presents double benefit: it serves for
synthesis of aminoacids, proteins and nucleic acids of bacteries, and
is transformed into ammonia, compound that holds the pH neutrality. An
excess of nytrogen produces an excessive formation of ammonia, what is
toxic for some bacteries and inhibits the process, and an insufficient
quantity of nytrogen limits the reproduction of microorganisms.
mycroorganisms must consume the carbon and the nytrogen (main
nutrients) into a determined proportion, and this value is measured by
the carbon/nytrogen (C/N) relation contained by the organic matter used
in the operation.
criterion is that the quantitty of carbon related to the quantity of
nytrogen (C/N( in the organic material to degrade must be a
relation of 20 to 30.
C/N values less
than 20:1 for fermentation are inhibitory because it causes an
excessive formation of ammonia, while values over 30:1 denote the
scarse of nytrogen, what causes a decreasing in the growth of
bacterial adds. Then, the values of C/N tables allow to combine
different substrata (animal, vegetal origin, etc) for obtaining a
global an optimal C/N for digestion, considering the experimentation
digestion, a good mix of substrata conforming the inner of the
biodigester is important for the process development. The objectives of
biodigester content's agitation are following:
- To holdan uniform temperature across the whole anaerobic reactor.
- To avoid the formation of foams and the sedimentation in the biodigester content.
- To generate the contact of the fresh substratum with the bacterial groups.
- To avoid the creation of dead spaces without biological activity, those can reduce the effective volume of the reactor.
- To remove the metabolites produced by the methanogenic bacteries.
Toxicity And Inhibitors
The process of
anaerobic digestion inhibits and disminishes the speed of biogas
production in presence of toxic substances in the system. Those
substances can be 116, like:
bi-products or products of the metabolic activity, the anaerobic
organisms of the reactor: hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia,
volatile fat acids (VFA).
- Substances forming the substratum.
- Substances bursting into the system, accidentally or other causes.
Content Of Solids
matter is composed by water and a solid fraction, called total solids.
Inside the anaerobic reactor, as much as it increases the content of
solids, the mobility of methanogenic bacteries inside the
substratum sees limited, so the production of biogas decreases.
That is why the content solids value must be limited for avoiding
unbalance in the digestion process.
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